By International Atomic Energy Agency
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Extra resources for Analytical applications of nuclear techniques
Part II 40 Advanced X ray fluorescence techniques Si(Li) detector CCD camera and microscope SDD detector Sample Motorized scanning stage Focusing glass capillary X ray tube FIG. 1. Schematic view of the microbeam XRF system. FIG. 2. Uranium rich and iron rich particles. Part II 41 Wegrzynek et al. FIG. 3. In situ element determination in soil by XRF spectrometry. FIG. 4. Pigment analysis with portable XRF spectrometer. Part II 42 Advanced X ray fluorescence techniques 100 Certified/recommended values Information values Given concentration (mass fraction) 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 Determined concentration (mass fraction) FIG.
This allows the realization of extremely low detection limits, which presently lie in the range of about 106 atoms per sample, corresponding to less than 1 fg for most radioisotopes studied so far. Additionally, RIMS has the advantage of being a rapid technique, with measuring times in the range of a few hours, which makes it attractive for fast surveillance and for the case of an emergency. In comparison with most competitive techniques, only Part II 33 Kratz et al. minor chemical treatments are needed for RIMS sample preparation.
Apart from the determination of specific radioactive exposure in environmental and technical samples, a variety of other research problems can be tackled using this technique. These include problems in atomic physics, geochemical sciences, cosmochemistry and biomedical investigations. Depending on the individual applications, an overall efficiency of up to 10–3 in combination with an isotopic selectivity of as high as 1013, which is mandatory, for example, for applications using 41Ca, can be realized.
Analytical applications of nuclear techniques by International Atomic Energy Agency