By Duncan B Campbell
Когда тактика осады стала неотъемлемым условием успеха в войне, генералы перед инженерами и учеными поставили задачу разработать тактику, прорыва обороны и блокады города с помощью фокусов и обмана. Это увлекательное исследование отслеживает изменения в тактике осады от Древней Персии (6 веке до н. э.) до осад, осуществляемых Римом 2-й век до нашей эры), описывая широкий спектр оборудования и техники, которые использовались в этот период.
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Additional info for Ancient Siege Warfare. Persians, Greeks, Carthaginians and Romans 546-146 BC
Similarly, the quantity of ships shrunk by 84 percent, but their unit costs rose by 50 percent. With tracked combat vehicles (tanks), quantities shrunk by 90 percent, and unit costs rose by 54 percent. As noted above, the Defense Department was in a death spiral. Its equipment was aging and wearing out (from simultaneous training and worldwide deployments), but the DoD could not afford to replace the older systems because budgets were falling and unit costs were rising. In addition, the DoD was facing increasing maintenance costs because its equipment was old and worn out and the costs of spare parts were rising (the air force’s costs per flying hour went up over 40 percent in seven years).
Rather, the trends have been toward outsourcing to competitive suppliers whose core competence is associated with the individual subsystems, parts, or services. With such outsourcing, the commercial firm can remain competitive. 9. The False Perception of Autarchy Many people think of defense as a problem that can be considered in a closed domestic economic system. The facts indicate the contrary. This reality of multinational involvement began in the revolutionary period and continues today. 7 Today every weapon system built by the United States contains foreign parts, and many are based on foreign designs.
One of the most dramatic personnel cost increases is health care for active and retired military and their families. By 2005, the United States was spending overall $2 trillion annually on health care20 (this equaled 16 percent of the country’s gross domestic product). S. 21 Military health care and pension costs are also soaring, particularly as the recruits and officers who have formed the volunteer armed forces after the Vietnam War retire and age. 22 Because of increases in enrollment, benefits, and general medical inflation, TRICARE costs more than doubled from fiscal year 2001 to fiscal year 2005.
Ancient Siege Warfare. Persians, Greeks, Carthaginians and Romans 546-146 BC by Duncan B Campbell