By Robert M. Carmack
Anthropology and international background explains the foundation and improvement of human societies and cultures from their earliest beginnings to the present—utilizing an anthropological lens but additionally drawing from sociology, economics, political technology, historical past, and ecological and spiritual studies.
Carmack reconceptualizes global background from an international standpoint by means of applying the expansive thoughts of “world-systems” and “civilizations,” and by means of paying deeper cognizance to the function of tribal and local peoples inside this historical past. instead of focusing on the minute info of particular nice occasions in international heritage, he shifts our concentration to the large social and cultural contexts within which they happened. Carmack lines the emergence of old kingdoms and the features of pre-modern empires in addition to the methods wherein the fashionable international has turn into built-in and remodeled. The ebook addresses Western civilization in addition to comparative strategies that have spread out in Asia, the center East, Latin the US, and sub-Saharan Africa. Vignettes beginning each one bankruptcy and case reviews built-in in the course of the textual content illustrate the various and infrequently tremendous complicated ancient methods that have operated via time and throughout neighborhood, local, and international settings.
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Extra info for Anthropology and Global History: From Tribes to the Modern World-System
6. Locations of major modern civilizations. 26 Chapter 1 single coherent political entities. Indeed, groups within a civilization could be expected to have conflicts and “even fight each other” (Huntington 1996:19). , world-systems). Civilizations, like all cultural creations, have the potential to generate ideological power, and as a result conflicts between them have long played a major role in human history. Competing Perspectives on Civilizations Considerable disagreement exists over Huntington’s list of the distinct civilizations that have emerged in human history, as well as with his thesis that contemporary conflicts often divide along civilizational lines.
Civilizations, as the term is employed here, are primarily cultural phenomena: they are not political structures such as empires, states, or chiefdoms; nor are they large economic or political networks; that is to say, they are not world-systems (nevertheless, see the argument by David Wilkinson in case study 2 below that from one perspective civilizations are world-systems). As the broadest, most cosmopolitan and comprehensive of cultural expressions, civilizations are necessarily complex. Almost universally, “civilized” cultures express highly rationalized views of the world that have been systematically explored over time by their creators through careful thought and analysis.
The more general term “tribe” includes diverse forms of mini-systems that for several thousands of years surpassed the earliest bands in historical importance and eventually became the most numerous of all mini-systems (the Papuans of the vignette above exemplify this more complex tribal type). “Chiefdoms,” in turn, are properly categorized as the historically most complex and probably the latest global development of tribal mini-systems. Chiefdoms emerged around the globe as the latest of the tribal prototype, leading the way to the appearance in world history of the first tributary-systems, antecedents to the subsequent global sociocultural world, the Modern World-System.
Anthropology and Global History: From Tribes to the Modern World-System by Robert M. Carmack