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Most of the backgrounds discussed in the previous section can be minimized, at least in principle, by shielding, purification or other engineering steps. However, beyond approximately 1000 km there is a physics limitation imposed by the reaI antineutrino background from the world’s fission reactors. events per day in the world’s most remote regions, which, interpolating in Table 5, gives a range of no more than 1200 Ian for a 1 kt explosion. This limit can be evaded by requiring more than 10 signal events.

These rates are slightly lower than those in existing large phototubes. x Thus, phototubes with intrinsic photostatistical noise levels comparable to the present state of the art can be used even in fair]y long-range detectors. Table 11: The dark current level per phototube required to ensure that phototube noise is no greater than the overall tolerable noise level per module. Range (km) 10 100 Maximum allowable dark current (Hz) 1300 1100 950 750 1000 12,800 35 Appendix 11:Backgrounds Correlated Backgrounds In Doped Water Detectors Muons with energies in the 10-100 GeV range passing through the fiducial volume can deposit several GeV of energy by ionization.

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Antineutrino Detection for Monitoring Nuclear Explosions


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