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By Jolene Wochenske

ISBN-10: 0071701966

ISBN-13: 9780071701969

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Though, as Maya Feile Tomes reminds me (pers. ), modern linguists also restrict their data; it is just that our data is restricted for us. 35 Papaconstantinou 2010: 3. Bodel 2001. For the oral–written dichotomy, see Adams and Swain 2002: 2–7. Multiple languages, multiple identities 13 indigenous languages seem never to have been written and we cannot describe accurately the complexity of linguistic choices, motivated, for example, by domains (see below, p. 24), based purely on restricted written evidence.

Adams 2003: 459–461; Nicolas 1996. Adams 2003: 523. For loan-shifts, see Adams 2003: 461–468. Adams states that this is often a highclass feature, but he also presents evidence from non-technical, lower-class discourse. No full-length, systematic discussion as yet exists. Adams 2003: 27. Syntactic interference is common in texts, see Adams 2003: 496–520. g. tonemic interference, see Clyne 2003: 76–79, but only the most pertinent to the material in the volume are mentioned. 61 For the ancient world, the distribution of the item in the extant literature may give an idea of whether it had generally been accepted into the recipient language (borrowing), or whether its attestation was ad hoc (code-switching or interference).

For bilinguals, choice of language can be significant for presentations of identity and intergroup or interpersonal relations. Occasionally the choice of language may be due to idiomatic or lexical gaps in the 75 76 See Clyne 2003: 20–69. See also Myers-Scotton 2006: 45–66, who notes that cities, border areas and trading centres are particularly multilingual. Fishman 1964. 77 Fishman (1965) defined as domains the abstract mixtures of statuses, role relationships, settings and topics which provoke similar language choices (see Clackson pp.

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Basic German by Jolene Wochenske

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