By Alexander Fantalkin, Assaf Yasur-Landau
This number of twelve papers, devoted to Professor Israel Finkelstein, offers with a number of elements about the archaeology of Israel and the Levant throughout the Bronze and Iron a while. even if the world below dialogue runs from southeastern Turkey (Alalakh) right down to the arid zones of the Negev wilderness, the most emphasis is at the Land of Israel. This assortment presents the newest evaluate of a few thorny matters in Israeli archaeology through the Bronze and Iron a while and in particular addresses chronology, country formation, identification, and organisation. It deals, inter alia, a clean examine the burial practices and iconography of the classes mentioned, in addition to a second look of the subsistence economic system and cost styles. This booklet is finely illustrated with greater than sixty unique drawings.
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Additional info for Bene Israel: Studies in the Archaeology of Israel and the Levant During the Bronze and Iron Ages in Honour of Israel Finkelstein (Culture and History of the Ancient Near East)
E. 1965. The Archaeology of Palestine. In: Wright, G. , ed. The Bible and the Ancient Near East: Essays in Honor of William Foxwell Albright. Garden City: 85–139. Yadin, Y. 1972. Hazor: The Head of all Those Kingdoms (Schweich Lectures 1970). London. 2 In what follows, I will point out several factors that agree with the archaeological record and which may also be interpreted as reliable signs of statehood in Iron Age Judah. The main issue I wish to concentrate on is the appearance of burial practices connected with the use of so-called bench tombs in Iron Age Judah.
Can Bench Tombs in Iron Age Judah Serve as an Indicator of State Formation? 13 According to Halpern, the emergence of the monotheistic urban elite, which gained ascendancy in Judah under Kings Hezekiah, Manasseh, and Josiah, is reflected inter alia in Israelite burial customs. 14 I agree with Halpern’s suggestion that 8th–7th-century Judahite bench tombs mainly reflect newly created urban elites; however, his suggestion regarding the change in burial practices in the 7th century BCE lacks evidence in the archaeological record.
Bunimovitz and Lederman argue that this may indicate that the emergence of governmental organization in Judah took place much earlier than the 8th century BCE (2001: 145; cf. Finkelstein 2002a). Pushing their evidence still further, one might suggest that the early appearance of rock-cut bench tombs in the Shephelah is in line with the assumption that the earliest traces of statehood, including growing social inequality, will be particularly visible at the borders. It seems, however, that applying the “border approach” to Iron Age IIA Judah would be avoiding the real question.
Bene Israel: Studies in the Archaeology of Israel and the Levant During the Bronze and Iron Ages in Honour of Israel Finkelstein (Culture and History of the Ancient Near East) by Alexander Fantalkin, Assaf Yasur-Landau