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5 1 2 3 4 Systems 5 6 Fig. 11 Cost comparison of various production systems for hydrogen [data from Naterer et al. 00 II, and IV. System III is excluded in this comparative chart because the specific aim is to compare only the technology of today. The Generation IV SCWR is still under development; therefore System III will be analyzed later with the purpose to study the potential of improvement of hydrogen production technology. 1. For capacities below ~10–20 t/day, electrolysis from offpeak electricity has a lower unit cost of hydrogen production, although the advantage reverses at higher capacities.

More storage is needed to meet demand, which increases the overall cost. The electrolyzers are never shut down: during the off-peak hours, the electrolyzers run to a capacity much higher than that corresponding to peak hours of operation. 10 shows the influence of the increase factor of off-peak electrolysis capacity with respect to the peak period on the storage time and specific hydrogen cost. If the off-peak capacity factor is higher, then the required hours of hydrogen storage time are reduced.

System III uses the Cu–Cl cycle to split water into hydrogen and oxygen through intermediate copper and chlorine compounds. This cycle comprises a set of chemical reactions that form a closed internal loop that recycles all chemicals on a continuous basis, without emitting any GHGs externally to the atmosphere. 3) is used to determine the capital cost of a 10 t/day Cu–Cl plant. In this case, the reference values taken from a study by the Argonne National Laboratory—as cited in Naterer et al. (2008)—are $124 M for a Cu–Cl plant that produces 125 t/day of hydrogen.

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Ceramic Materials for Primary Loop Flowmeters at Nuclear Powerplants

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