Read e-book online Clinical MR Imaging PDF

By Wolfgang R. Nitz, Thomas Balzer, Daniel S. Grosu, Thomas Allkemper (auth.), Prof. Dr. Peter Reimer, Prof. Dr. Paul M. Parizel, Prof. James F. M. Meaney, Dr. Falko A. Stichnoth (eds.)

ISBN-10: 3540745017

ISBN-13: 9783540745013

ISBN-10: 3540745041

ISBN-13: 9783540745044

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has turn into the major cross-sectional imaging technique in medical perform. non-stop technical advancements have considerably broadened the scope of purposes. at this time, MR imaging isn't just crucial diagnostic process in neuroradiology and musculoskeletal radiology, yet has additionally turn into a useful diagnostic software for belly, pelvic, cardiac, breast and vascular imaging. This publication deals functional directions for appearing effective and low-priced MRI examinations in day-by-day perform. The underlying concept is that, via adopting a realistic protocol-based procedure, the work-flow in a MRI unit could be streamlined and optimized.

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6 Imaging Protocols and Image Quality The task is obvious: It is desired to have the best spatial resolution with the optimum of contrast between lesion and normal parenchyma in the shortest possible measurement time. the given TR. Optimizing the TR for T1-W imaging may lead to a TR, which is too short to do a multislice measurement with the necessary number of slices to cover the desired ­volume. The commonly used protocols tend to be a compromise between using as many slices as necessary to cover the region of interest and the selection of the shortest possible TR to still achieve an optimal T1-weighting.

The carbon-bounded hydrogen nuclei are more “shielded” by the circulating single electron, thus experiencing an effective lower field than the water-bounded hydrogen nuclei. As a result, the Larmor frequencies of mobile fatty acids are below the water frequency. This phenomenon is called chemical shift (Fig. 18). 5 ppm. As the frequency information is utilized for spatial encoding, the chemical shift causes a pixel shift of the “water-image” vs. the “fat-image” (see also Sect. 2). The chemical shift enables a spectral suppression of the signal from fat as well as a utilization of in-phase vs.

This power is known as the basal metabolic rate. The international guideline (IEC 60601– 2–33) on safety requirements in MR assumes 2 W/kg whole-body SAR exposure as being no burden to the patient (normal mode), that is 160 W for a patient weight of 176 lbs for the duration of a scan. The classical perspective of the SAR mechanism considers the interaction of the electrical component and the magnetic component of the RF field with the biological tissue of the patient’s body. The RF frequency w0 = 2pn0 contributes with the power of two, as does the amplitude B1 of the RF pulse.

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Clinical MR Imaging by Wolfgang R. Nitz, Thomas Balzer, Daniel S. Grosu, Thomas Allkemper (auth.), Prof. Dr. Peter Reimer, Prof. Dr. Paul M. Parizel, Prof. James F. M. Meaney, Dr. Falko A. Stichnoth (eds.)

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