Read e-book online Cogent science in context: the science wars, argumentation PDF

By William Rehg

ISBN-10: 0262182718

ISBN-13: 9780262182713

Fresh years have obvious a sequence of severe, more and more acrimonious debates over the prestige and legitimacy of the ordinary sciences. those "science wars" occur within the public arena--with present battles over evolution and international warming--and in academia, the place assumptions approximately medical objectivity have been referred to as into query. Given those hostilities, what makes a systematic declare advantage our attention? In Cogent technological know-how in Context, William Rehg examines what makes medical arguments cogent--that is, robust and convincing--and how we must always determine that cogency. Drawing at the instruments of argumentation concept, Rehg proposes a multidimensional, context-sensitive framework either for figuring out the cogency of medical arguments and for accomplishing cooperative interdisciplinary checks of the cogency of tangible medical arguments. Rehg heavily examines J?rgen Habermas's argumentation concept and its implications for knowing cogency, making use of it to a case from high-energy physics. a chain of difficulties, even if, beset Habermas's strategy. In reaction, Rehg outlines his personal "critical contextualist" procedure, which makes use of argumentation-theory different types in a brand new and extra context-sensitive means encouraged by means of ethnography of technological know-how.

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Extra info for Cogent science in context: the science wars, argumentation theory, and Habermas

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Because he makes the degree of confirmation depend on a frequency distribution that is determined a priori, in advance of empirical work, he must situate his logical reconstructions not only with respect to the pragmatic choice of vocabulary, but also with respect to the choice of “inductive method,” which determines the particular mathematical weightings in the distribution of possible outcomes (Carnap 1952). These choices are not trivial, for they determine the degree of evidential support that a given hypothesis has.

However, as logics of evidential justification, their formal models of confirmation can be read as potential contributions to a normative theory of argument cogency. 2 Hempel’s Qualitative Definition of Confirmation We find one of the clearest examples of this approach in the “purely syntactical” model of confirmation that Carl Hempel advanced in his most formalistic phase. Hempel conceives confirmation solely in terms of the intrinsic formal merits of argument, that is, solely in terms of structural relationships between the evidence and hypothesis-conclusion (Hempel 1943, 1945; Hempel and Oppenheim 1945/2000; cf.

Like other logical empiricists, he takes a prescriptive approach focused on the intrinsic formal merits of argument products, abstracted from their content, context, and the pragmatics of inquiry. , in articles, review essays, and the like) by reconstructing the argument as a set of sentences formulated in a language amenable to formalmathematical manipulation. • What count as intrinsic merits are the virtues of relevance, support, strength of support, and valid structure: premises must be relevant, which is to say they must 42 Chapter 2 either support a hypothesis or support its rejection, and the moves that take one from premises to conclusion must accord with the demands of deductive and inductive logics, which also determine the strength of evidential support.

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Cogent science in context: the science wars, argumentation theory, and Habermas by William Rehg

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