By John Weiner
Chilly and ultracold collisions occupy a strategic place on the intersection of numerous strong subject matters of present examine in chemical physics; in atomic, molecular, and optical physics; or even in condensed subject. the character of those collisions has vital results for optical manipulation of inelastic and reactive strategies, precision dimension of molecular and atomic houses, matter-wave coherences, and quantum-statistical condensates of dilute, weakly interacting atoms. this important place explains the huge curiosity and explosive development of the sector given that its inception in 1987. the writer stories parts of quantum scattering concept, collisions happening within the presence of 1 or extra mild fields, and collisions at nighttime, less than the photon draw back restrict imposed by way of the presence of any mild box. eventually, it studies the basic houses of those mesoscopic quantum platforms, and describes the main significance of the scattering size to condensate balance.
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Extra info for Cold and ultracold collisions in Quantum Microscopic and Mesoscopic systems
The values of κa at which the divergences appear correspond to a collision energy approaching zero. 3 Collisions in a light ﬁeld Much of the work on collisions of cooled and trapped atoms has involved collisions in a light ﬁeld. This is the subject of Chapters 4–6, of this book and been the subject of earlier reviews , . Therefore, it is useful to provide an overview of some of the concepts that are used in understanding cold collisions in a light ﬁeld. 2. gives a schematic description of the key features of these collisions.
It is simply the time-averaged force arising from the interaction of the dipole induced by the oscillating electric ﬁeld of the light, with the gradient of the electric ﬁeld amplitude. Focusing the light beam controls the magnitude of this gradient, and detuning the optical frequency below or above the atomic transition controls the sign of the force acting on the atom. Tuning the light below resonance attracts the atom to the center of the light beam while tuning above resonance repels it. The dipole force is a stimulated process in which no net exchange of energy between the ﬁeld and the atom takes place, but photons are absorbed from one mode and reappear by stimulated emission in another.
Z+ 2α . K z + z = 0. 23) , and (µ B /¯h ) dB dz are normalized analogs of the quantities deﬁned earlier. 16 × 1010 ) h¯ k dB . 25) The extension of these results to three dimensions is straightforward if one takes into account that the quadrupole ﬁeld gradient in the z direction is twice the gradient in the x, y directions, so that K z = 2K x = 2K y . The velocity-dependent damping term implies that kinetic energy E dissipates from the atom (or collection of atoms) as E/E 0 = e− m t , 2α where m is the atomic mass and E 0 is the kinetic energy at the beginning of the cooling process.
Cold and ultracold collisions in Quantum Microscopic and Mesoscopic systems by John Weiner