By R.J.M. Konings (editor)
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Extra info for Comprehensive Nuclear Materials, Volume 5: Material Performance and Corrosion / Waste Materials
Other countries, including Japan, are also investigating lowering hydrogen, because laboratory data suggest that the initiation of cracking is delayed at lower hydrogen concentrations. 0 270 280 290 1 cm3 kg-1 H2 300 310 320 Temperature (ЊC) 4 cm3 kg-1 H2 25 330 340 Bad 350 Figure 19 Effect of dissolved H2 on primary water stress corrosion cracking crack growth rate at different temperatures. ml H2/kg H2O (330 ˚C) 10 15 20 25 30 Crack initiation time (h) Jenssen data on Alloy 600 35 1E−07 Growth 8E−08 20 000 6E−08 15 000 4E−08 10 000 Initiation 2E−08 5000 0 0 5 10 Hydrogen activity (kPa) 15 Crack growth rate (mm s–1) 5 25 000 0E+00 20 Figure 20 Dependencies between the dissolved hydrogen content in pressurized water reactor primary coolant on the crack initiation time observed on initially smooth surfaces and on the crack propagation rate.
Both soluble and insoluble species may be involved, with the latter tending to deposit in stagnate areas (‘crud traps’). In addition to the chemistry items discussed later in this section, it must be stressed that other factors are important to the goal of reducing radiation fields. In particular, the success of the later German-designed plants in eliminating cobalt sources in hardfacing alloys, thereby achieving very low radiation fields, demonstrates the benefits of cobalt source reduction. 17 Typical PWR fuel cycles start with a relatively high boric acid concentration, which gradually reduces to zero at the end of the cycle.
Extended experience at these plants, over at least 10 years of operation, indicates no adverse effects on fuel at zinc concentrations from 15 to 25 ppb. 24 comment that fuel performance must be considered prior to injecting zinc and additional monitoring and fuel surveillances to understand and evaluate the impact and the role of zinc may be required in some circumstances. 1 Evolution of PWR Secondary Chemistry Strategies The objectives of PWR secondary water chemistry control are to maximize secondary system integrity and reliability by minimizing impurity ingress and transport, minimizing SG fouling, and minimizing corrosion damage of SG tubes.
Comprehensive Nuclear Materials, Volume 5: Material Performance and Corrosion / Waste Materials by R.J.M. Konings (editor)