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In β-decay, there is no barrier for neutrinos, since the interaction of a neutrino with other material can be ignored. When the other emitted particle is an electron, it is attracted by the nucleus, and thus there is also no barrier. In the case of a positron, there is a Coulomb barrier. Nevertheless, the mass of a positron is smaller than that of an α-particle, and thus it can easily pass through the barrier. However, in nuclides with large atomic numbers, βþ -decay with low decay energy rarely takes place since orbital electron capture, which is a competitive process, dominates.

As a competitive process for βþ -decay, orbital electron capture occurs when a nucleus takes in an orbital electron. As a competitive process for γ-decay, internal conversion occurs, when an orbital electron is ejected, rather than a γ-ray being emitted. By α decay, Z and N both decrease by 2. By βÀ -decay, Z increases by 1 and N decreases by 1. By βþ -decay and orbital electron capture, Z decreases by 1 and N increases by 1. By γ-decay and the internal conversion, neither Z nor N change. Some decays take place readily, while other decays rarely occur.

The number of different temperatures is usually in the range of 3–5. The number of different background scatter cross sections is typically in the range of 5–9. Therefore, for a given problem at a specific temperature and material composition, the code TRANSX (for transport cross-sectional code) can interpolate in the resonance grid that NJOY provides to get a problem-dependent cross section for each material. The output file that NJOY provides with the multiple values of cross sections is called a MATXS (for material cross-sectional library) file.

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Containment of Underground Nuclear Explosions [7th symposium procs] Vol 1

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